Today's kerosine jet fuels have been developed from the illuminating kerosine used in the early gas turbine engines. These engines needed a fuel with good combustion characteristics and a high energy content. The kerosine type fuels used in civil aviation nowadays are mainly JET A-1 and Jet A. The latter has a higher freezing point (maximum minus 40 degrees C instead of maximum minus 47 degrees C) and is available only in North America.
TS-1 is the main jet fuel grade available in Russian and CIS states.
In colder regions like Russia, CIS states and some East European countries the aviation fuel used are those with lower flash point and lower viscosity. TS1 is a Kerosene-type aviation fuel supplied against the GOST 10227 specification with slightly higher volatility compared to Jet1. TS1 has a low viscosity of -60◦C, flash point of 28◦C minimum and lower freezing point of -50◦C
JET FUEL TS-1, first class
Density at 20 ° C - not less than 780 kg/m3.
The temperature of the beginning of the distillation of - 150
10% is distilled at a temperature - no higher than 165 ° C.
50% is distilled at a temperature - no higher than 195 ° C.
90% is distilled at a temperature - no higher than 230 ° C
98% is distilled at a temperature - no higher than 250 ° C
Viscosity: at 20 ° C, not less than 1.3 (1.3) mm2 / s (cSt).
Viscosity: at -40 ° C to 8 mm 2 / s (cSt).
Low calorific value - not less than 43 120 kJ / kg.
The height of smoking flame - not less than 25 mm.
Acidity, mg KOH per 100 cm3 of fuel, no more than 0.7.
Iodine number, g iodine per 100 g of fuel, no more than 2.5.
Flash point in closed crucible - not below 28 ° C
The temperature of crystallization - not higher than -50 ° C
thermal stability under static conditions at 150 ° C, the
concentration of sediment mg/100 cm3 of fuel, no more than
Content of aromatic hydrocarbons - no more than 22%.
Mass fraction of total sulfur - less than 0.2%.
Mass fraction of mercaptan sulfur - less than 0.003%
Test on copper plate at 100 ° C, 3 h stands.
Ash - not more than 0.003%.